# Creating an Observable from a Simulation

When running a refinement, MDMC makes quantitative comparisons between properties measured experimentally and calculated from MD simulations: within MDMC each of these properties is an Observable. Examples of these observables are the dynamic structure factor, $$S(Q,\omega)$$, and the pair distribution function, $$G(r)$$.

Within a refinement, each Observable is calculated from MD automatically. However it is also useful to be able to calculate an Observable from an MD simulation and plot it, which is demonstrated in this tutorial.

This tutorial requires matplotlib to be installed:

:

try:
%matplotlib notebook
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D
except ImportError:
%pip install matplotlib
try:
%matplotlib notebook
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D
except ImportError:
print('Please restart the kernel so that matplotlib can be imported.')


## Running a simulation

Below we setup and run a simulation of liquid argon so that we have a Trajectory from which to calculate an Observable.

As this is minimizing, equilibrating, and running a production run, this should take ~3 minutes to execute. Minimization lowers the potential energy of the simulated system by adjusting atomic positions. Running a simulation with equilibration set to True will not record a Trajectory, and since we specified neither a thermostat or barastat for the simulation a Berendsen thermostat will be applied for the duration of the equilibration. It will not be present for the second run, when the Trajectory is recorded.

:

from MDMC.MD import *
import numpy as np

# Build universe
universe = Universe(dimensions=38.4441)
Ar = Atom('Ar', charge=0.)
# Fill box with 1000 atoms, and hence atoms per AA^-3 density = 0.0176
universe.fill(Ar, num_struc_units=1000)
print('Universe contains {} Ar atoms'.format(len(universe.atoms)))
Ar_dispersion = Dispersion(universe,
(Ar.atom_type, Ar.atom_type),
cutoff=8.,
vdw_tail_correction=True,
function=LennardJones(1.0243, 3.36))

# MD Engine setup
simulation = Simulation(universe,
engine="lammps",
time_step=10.0,
temperature=120.,
traj_step=25)

# Energy Minimization and equilibration
simulation.minimize(n_steps=5000)
simulation.run(n_steps=20000, equilibration=True)
simulation.run(12025)
trajectory = simulation.trajectory

Supported DL_POLY version 4.10
Universe created with:
Dimensions       [38.44, 38.44, 38.44]
Force field                       None
Number of atoms                      0

Universe contains 1000 Ar atoms
LAMMPS (29 Sep 2021 - Update 3)
OMP_NUM_THREADS environment is not set. Defaulting to 1 thread. (src/comm.cpp:98)
using 1 OpenMP thread(s) per MPI task
LAMMPS output is captured by PyLammps wrapper
LAMMPS (29 Sep 2021 - Update 3)
OMP_NUM_THREADS environment is not set. Defaulting to 1 thread. (src/comm.cpp:98)
using 1 OpenMP thread(s) per MPI task
LAMMPS output is captured by PyLammps wrapper
Total wall time: 0:00:00
Simulation created with lammps engine and settings:
temperature  120.0



### 3D surface plotting

Below we define a simple function for plotting 3D surfaces, which we will use for plotting the observables.

:

def plot_surface(x, y, z):
fig = plt.figure()
ax = fig.gca(projection='3d')
X, Y = np.meshgrid(x, y)
surf = ax.plot_surface(X, Y, z)
plt.show()


## Calculating $$S(Q,\omega)$$

To see which observables can be calculated, use the help function to look at the observables module documentation:

:

from MDMC.trajectory_analysis import observables
help(observables)

Help on package MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables in MDMC.trajectory_analysis:

NAME
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables - Modules calculating observables from molecular dynamics trajectories

DESCRIPTION
Observables (/ indicates alias)
-----------
DynamicStructureFactor / SQw
CoherentDynamicStructureFactor / SQwCoherent / SQwCoh / SQw_coh
IncoherentDynamicStructureFactor / SQwIncoherentSQwIncoh / SQw_incoh
PDF / PairDistributionFunction
IntermediateScatteringFunction / FQt
CoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction / FQtCoherent / FQtCoh / FQt_coh
IncoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction / FQtIncoherentFQtIncoh / FQt_incoh

Examples
--------
Observables can be instantiated using the names above. For instance an SQw
observable can be instantiated using either of the aliases:

.. code-block:: python

from MDMC.trajectory_analysis import observables
sqw = observables.SQw()                     # This line...
sqw = observables.DynamicStructureFactor()  # ...is equivalent to this line

PACKAGE CONTENTS
fqt
fqt_coh
fqt_incoh
obs
obs_factory
pdf
sqw

CLASSES
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins, MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable)
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.FQt
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt_coh.FQtCoherent
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt_incoh.FQtIncoherent
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable(abc.ABC)
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.pdf.PairDistributionFunction
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.AbstractSQw(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins, MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable)
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQw
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwCoherent
MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwIncoherent

CoherentDynamicStructureFactor = class SQwCoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwCoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

CoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction = class FQtCoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtCoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'FQt_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

DynamicStructureFactor = class SQw(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the total dynamic structure factor
|
|  Calculation is done in the respective FQt object, and this is
|  just a reference to get the correct FQt object.
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQw
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

class FQt(AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the total dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQt
|      AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'IntermediateScatteringFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

FQtCoh = class FQtCoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtCoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'FQt_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

class FQtCoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtCoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'FQt_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

FQtIncoherentFQtIncoh = class FQtIncoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the incoherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtIncoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'IncoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

FQt_coh = class FQtCoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtCoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'FQt_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

FQt_incoh = class FQtIncoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the incoherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtIncoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'IncoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

IncoherentDynamicStructureFactor = class SQwIncoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the incoherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwIncoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_incoh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

IncoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction = class FQtIncoherent(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the incoherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQtIncoherent
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'IncoherentIntermediateScatteringFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.fqt.AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

IntermediateScatteringFunction = class FQt(AbstractFQt)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading the intermediate scattering
|  function for the total dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      FQt
|      AbstractFQt
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'IntermediateScatteringFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractFQt:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  apply_resolution(self, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution)
|      Apply instrument resolution to an FQt object.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      resolution: Resolution
|          The Resolution object to apply to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      The FQt object with resolution applied.
|
|  calculate_SQw(self, energy, resolution: MDMC.resolution.resolution.Resolution = None)
|      Calculates S(Q, w) from F(Q, t), accounting for instrument resolution.
|
|      In order to obtain len(energy) values in energy, we reflect the
|      intermediate scattering function in time to give it dimensions of
|      (len(self.Q), 2 * (len(self.t)) - 2). This uses the fact it is even
|      in time, and the number of time points is chosen to be 1 greater than
|      the number of energy points [Rapaport, The Art of Molecular Dynamics
|      Simulation (2nd Edition), 2004, page 142].
|
|      The numpy implementation of the FFT gives frequencies arranged so that
|      the first len(energy) points in the energy dimension correspond to
|      positive frequencies, and the remaining points have negative frequency.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      energy: list of floats
|          the list of energy (E) points at which S(Q, w) will be calculated.
|      resolution: Resolution (default None)
|          The instrument resolution object which will be applied to FQt.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          The S(Q, w) calculated from F(Q, t)
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculates the intermediate scattering function from a trajectory.
|
|      independent_variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractFQt:
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      FQt, the intermediate scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'FQt' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 't'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.FQt[Q_index, t_index] is the data point
|      for given indices of self.Q and self.t
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.FQt)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.t))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency between
|      different readers/methods which create FQt objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the time 't' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the intermediate scattering function Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 't' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 't' and 'Q'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractFQt:
|
|  FQt
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the intermediate
|      scattering function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and time t (in fs)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  t
|      Get or set the times of the intermediate scattering function in units of
|      fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      array
|          1D array of times in fs
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.sqw.SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

PDF = class PairDistributionFunction(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading a pair distribution function (PDF).
|  We employ the following mathematical form for the total pair distribution function (PDF):
|
|      .. math::
|
|          G(r) = \sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j(g_{ij}(r) - 1)
|
|      where :math:c_i is the number concentration of element :math:i,
|      :math:b_i is the (coherent) scattering length of element :math:i,
|      and the partial pair distribution, :math:g_{ij}, is:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          g_{ij}(r) = \frac{h_{ij}(r)}{4 \pi r^2 \rho_{j} \Delta{r}}
|
|      where :math:h_{ij} is the histogram of distances of :math:j element
|      atoms around atoms of element :math:i, with bins of size
|      :math:\Delta{r}, and :math:\rho_{j} is the number density of
|      atoms of element :math:j. As :math:g_{ij}(0) = 0, it is evident that
|      :math:G(0) = -\sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j.
|
|  The total PDF is contained in PDF and the partial pair PDFs (if calculated or imported)
|  are contained in partial_pdfs.
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      PairDistributionFunction
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Methods defined here:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: Union[MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, List[MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory]], verbose=0, **settings)
|      Calculate the pair distribution function, :math:G(r) from a
|      Trajectory
|
|      The total pair distribution function (pdf.PDF) has the form:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          G(r) = \sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j(g_{ij}(r) - 1)
|
|      where :math:c_i is the number concentration of element :math:i,
|      :math:b_i is the (coherent) scattering length of element :math:i,
|      and the partial pair distribution, :math:g_{ij}, is:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          g_{ij}(r) = \frac{h_{ij}(r)}{4 \pi r^2 \rho_{j} \Delta{r}}
|
|      where :math:h_{ij} is the histogram of distances of :math:j element
|      atoms around atoms of element :math:i, with bins of size
|      :math:\Delta{r}, and :math:\rho_{j} is the number density of
|      atoms of element :math:j. As :math:g_{ij}(0) = 0, it is evident that
|      :math:G(0) = -\sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j.
|
|      Independent variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      settings.
|
|      A number of frames can be specified, from which the PDF and its
|      error are calculated. If the number of frames is too large relative to
|      the run length, the samples will be correlated, which will result in an
|      underestimate of the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory or list of Trajectory
|          Either a list of MD Trajectorys or a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int
|          Verbose print settings. Not currently implemented for PDF.
|      **settings
|          n_frames : int
|              The number of frames from which the pdf and its error are
|              calculated. If this is not passed, 1% of the total number of
|              frames are used (rounded up to nearest int).
|          subset : list of tuples
|              The subset of element pairs from which the PDF is calculated.
|              This can be used to calculate the partial PDFs of a
|              multicomponent system. If this is not passed, all combinations
|              of elements are used i.e. the PDF is the total PDF.
|          b_coh : dict
|              Definitions of the coherent neutron scattering lengths for one
|              or more elements. This can be used to calculate the PDF of a
|              system where one or more elements has a coherent scattering
|              length different from the coherent scattering length in
|              MDMC.common.atom_properties (i.e. if it has been isotopically
|              substituted).
|          r_min : float
|              The minimum r (atomic separation) for which the PDF will be
|              calculated. If this, r_max, and r_step are passed then
|              these will create a range for the independent variable r,
|              which will overwrite any r which has previously been
|              defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
|          r_max : float
|              The maximum r (atomic separation) for which the PDF will be
|              calculated. If this, r_min, and r_step are passed then
|              these will create a range for the independent variable r,
|              which will overwrite any r which has previously been
|              defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
|          r_step : float
|              The step size of r (atomic separation) for which the PDF
|              will be calculated. If this, r_min, and r_max are passed
|              then these will create a range for the independent variable
|              r, which will overwrite any r which has previously been
|              defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
|          r : numpy.ndarray
|              The uniform r values for which the PDF will be calculated.
|              This cannot be passed if r_min, r_max, and r_step
|              are passed.
|          dimensions : array-like
|              A 3 element array-like (list, tuple) with the dimensions
|              of the Universe.
|
|      Examples
|      --------
|      To calculate the O-O partial PDF from a simulation of water, use the
|      subset keyword:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, subset=[(O, O)])
|
|      To calculate the sum of the H-O and O-O partial PDFs:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, subset=[(O, O), (H, O)])
|
|      To calculate the total PDF for sodium chloride with 37Cl:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, b_coh={'Cl':3.08})
|
|      To calculate the total PDF for r values of [1., 2., 3., 4., ]:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, b_coh={'Cl':3.08})
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      There is no hard limit on the number of frames that can be used, so
|      return None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables is 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None, not
|          used
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties defined here:
|
|  PDF
|
|  PDF_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: these are
|      PDF, the pair distribution function (in barn)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The shape of the 'PDF' dependent variable in terms of 'r'':
|      np.shape(self.PDF)=(np.size(self.r))
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      dict
|          The shape of the PDF dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      # Defines the current limitations on the atomic separation distance 'r'
|      of the PairDistributionFunction Observable.
|      The requirement is that 'r' must be uniform, but it does not have to start at zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'r'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors defined here:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the pair distribution
|      function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variable: this is
|      the atomic separation distance r (in Ang)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  r
|      Get or set the value of the atomic separation distance (in Ang)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'PairDistributionFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

class PairDistributionFunction(MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable)
|  A class for containing, calculating and reading a pair distribution function (PDF).
|  We employ the following mathematical form for the total pair distribution function (PDF):
|
|      .. math::
|
|          G(r) = \sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j(g_{ij}(r) - 1)
|
|      where :math:c_i is the number concentration of element :math:i,
|      :math:b_i is the (coherent) scattering length of element :math:i,
|      and the partial pair distribution, :math:g_{ij}, is:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          g_{ij}(r) = \frac{h_{ij}(r)}{4 \pi r^2 \rho_{j} \Delta{r}}
|
|      where :math:h_{ij} is the histogram of distances of :math:j element
|      atoms around atoms of element :math:i, with bins of size
|      :math:\Delta{r}, and :math:\rho_{j} is the number density of
|      atoms of element :math:j. As :math:g_{ij}(0) = 0, it is evident that
|      :math:G(0) = -\sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j.
|
|  The total PDF is contained in PDF and the partial pair PDFs (if calculated or imported)
|  are contained in partial_pdfs.
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      PairDistributionFunction
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Methods defined here:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: Union[MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, List[MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory]], verbose=0, **settings)
|      Calculate the pair distribution function, :math:G(r) from a
|      Trajectory
|
|      The total pair distribution function (pdf.PDF) has the form:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          G(r) = \sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j(g_{ij}(r) - 1)
|
|      where :math:c_i is the number concentration of element :math:i,
|      :math:b_i is the (coherent) scattering length of element :math:i,
|      and the partial pair distribution, :math:g_{ij}, is:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          g_{ij}(r) = \frac{h_{ij}(r)}{4 \pi r^2 \rho_{j} \Delta{r}}
|
|      where :math:h_{ij} is the histogram of distances of :math:j element
|      atoms around atoms of element :math:i, with bins of size
|      :math:\Delta{r}, and :math:\rho_{j} is the number density of
|      atoms of element :math:j. As :math:g_{ij}(0) = 0, it is evident that
|      :math:G(0) = -\sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j.
|
|      Independent variables can either be set previously or defined within
|      settings.
|
|      A number of frames can be specified, from which the PDF and its
|      error are calculated. If the number of frames is too large relative to
|      the run length, the samples will be correlated, which will result in an
|      underestimate of the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory or list of Trajectory
|          Either a list of MD Trajectorys or a single Trajectory object.
|      verbose: int
|          Verbose print settings. Not currently implemented for PDF.
|      **settings
|          n_frames : int
|              The number of frames from which the pdf and its error are
|              calculated. If this is not passed, 1% of the total number of
|              frames are used (rounded up to nearest int).
|          subset : list of tuples
|              The subset of element pairs from which the PDF is calculated.
|              This can be used to calculate the partial PDFs of a
|              multicomponent system. If this is not passed, all combinations
|              of elements are used i.e. the PDF is the total PDF.
|          b_coh : dict
|              Definitions of the coherent neutron scattering lengths for one
|              or more elements. This can be used to calculate the PDF of a
|              system where one or more elements has a coherent scattering
|              length different from the coherent scattering length in
|              MDMC.common.atom_properties (i.e. if it has been isotopically
|              substituted).
|          r_min : float
|              The minimum r (atomic separation) for which the PDF will be
|              calculated. If this, r_max, and r_step are passed then
|              these will create a range for the independent variable r,
|              which will overwrite any r which has previously been
|              defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
|          r_max : float
|              The maximum r (atomic separation) for which the PDF will be
|              calculated. If this, r_min, and r_step are passed then
|              these will create a range for the independent variable r,
|              which will overwrite any r which has previously been
|              defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
|          r_step : float
|              The step size of r (atomic separation) for which the PDF
|              will be calculated. If this, r_min, and r_max are passed
|              then these will create a range for the independent variable
|              r, which will overwrite any r which has previously been
|              defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
|          r : numpy.ndarray
|              The uniform r values for which the PDF will be calculated.
|              This cannot be passed if r_min, r_max, and r_step
|              are passed.
|          dimensions : array-like
|              A 3 element array-like (list, tuple) with the dimensions
|              of the Universe.
|
|      Examples
|      --------
|      To calculate the O-O partial PDF from a simulation of water, use the
|      subset keyword:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, subset=[(O, O)])
|
|      To calculate the sum of the H-O and O-O partial PDFs:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, subset=[(O, O), (H, O)])
|
|      To calculate the total PDF for sodium chloride with 37Cl:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, b_coh={'Cl':3.08})
|
|      To calculate the total PDF for r values of [1., 2., 3., 4., ]:
|
|          .. highlight:: python
|          .. code-block:: python
|
|          pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, b_coh={'Cl':3.08})
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      There is no hard limit on the number of frames that can be used, so
|      return None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables is 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None, not
|          used
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties defined here:
|
|  PDF
|
|  PDF_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: these are
|      PDF, the pair distribution function (in barn)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The shape of the 'PDF' dependent variable in terms of 'r'':
|      np.shape(self.PDF)=(np.size(self.r))
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      dict
|          The shape of the PDF dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      # Defines the current limitations on the atomic separation distance 'r'
|      of the PairDistributionFunction Observable.
|      The requirement is that 'r' must be uniform, but it does not have to start at zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'r'.
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors defined here:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the pair distribution
|      function (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variable: this is
|      the atomic separation distance r (in Ang)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  r
|      Get or set the value of the atomic separation distance (in Ang)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'PairDistributionFunction'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

class SQw(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the total dynamic structure factor
|
|  Calculation is done in the respective FQt object, and this is
|  just a reference to get the correct FQt object.
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQw
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

SQwCoh = class SQwCoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwCoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

class SQwCoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwCoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

SQwIncoherentSQwIncoh = class SQwIncoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the incoherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwIncoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_incoh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

SQw_coh = class SQwCoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the coherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwCoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_coh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

SQw_incoh = class SQwIncoherent(AbstractSQw)
|  A class for the incoherent dynamic structure factor
|
|  Method resolution order:
|      SQwIncoherent
|      AbstractSQw
|      SQwMixins
|      MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable
|      abc.ABC
|      builtins.object
|
|  Data and other attributes defined here:
|
|  __abstractmethods__ = frozenset()
|
|  name = 'SQw_incoh'
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  __init__(self)
|      Initialize self.  See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
|
|  calculate_dt(self)
|      Calculates the time separation of frames required by the experimental
|      dataset, assuming uniform spacing. Note that this may be different from
|      the time separation that the user has given as an input, as it only
|      depends on the current values for self.E. The relationship between
|      time and energy comes from the numpy implementation of the FFT for
|      2 * nE points where:
|
|      .. math::
|          \nu_{max} &=& \frac{n_E - 1}{2 n_E \Delta t} \\\\
|          \therefore \Delta t &=& \frac{h (n_E - 1)}{2 n_E E_{max}}
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      float
|          The time separation required by the current values of self.E
|
|  calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, verbose: int = 0, **settings)
|      Calculate the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, w) from a Trajectory.
|
|      If the Trajectory has more frames than the self.maximum_frames() that can be
|      used to recreate the grid of energy points, it can slice the Trajectory into
|      sub-trajectories of length self.maximum_frames(), with the slicing specified through
|      the settings use_average and cont_slicing.
|
|      The independent_variable Q can either be set previously or defined within
|      **settings.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      MD_input : Trajectory
|          An MDMC Trajectory from which to calculate SQw
|      verbose: int, optional
|          The level of verbosity:
|          Verbose level 0 gives no information.
|          Verbose level 1 gives final time for the whole method.
|          Verbose level 2 gives final time and also a progress bar.
|          Verbose level 3 gives final time, a progress bar, and time per step.
|      **settings
|          n_Q_vectors (int)
|              The maximum number of Q_vectors for any Q value. The
|              greater the number of Q_vectors, the more accurate the
|              calculation, but the longer it will take.
|          dimensions (list, tuple, numpy.ndarray)
|              A 3 element tuple or array of float specifying the
|              dimensions of the Universe in units of Ang
|          energy_resolution (dict)
|              Optionally specify energy resolution and function in units of ueV (micro eV),
|              in the format of the one-line dict {'function': value}, where function
|              is the resolution function and value is the desired FWHM.
|              e.g. to pass a Gaussian resolution of 80ueV we use {'gaussian': 80}.
|              Currently accepted functions are 'gaussian' and 'lorentzian'
|              Can also be 'lazily' given as float, in which case it is assumed to be Gaussian.
|          Q_values (array)
|              1D array of Q float (in Ang^-1). (optional)
|          use_average (bool)
|              Optional parameter if a list of more than one Trajectory is used. If set to
|              True (default) then the mean value for S(Q, w) is calculated. Also, the errors
|              are set to the standard deviation calculated over the list of Trajectory
|              objects.
|           cont_slicing (bool)
|              Flag to decide between two possible behaviours when the number of MD_steps is
|              larger than the minimum required to calculate the observables. If False
|              (default) then the Trajectory is sliced into non-overlapping
|              sub-Trajectory blocks for each of which the observable is calculated. If
|              True, then the Trajectory is sliced into as many non-identical
|              sub-Trajectory blocks as possible (with overlap allowed).
|
|  calculate_resolution_functions(self, dt)
|      Generates a resolution function in momentum and time that can be used in the calculation of
|      SQw. Note that this uses the SQw values of the Observable it is called from, and so
|      should only be called for an observable which has been created from relevant resolution
|      data, i.e. a vanadium sample.
|
|      Note that if this resolution function is used on data outside its original range, then it
|      will use nearest neighbour extrapolation. Additionally, the input will be reflected in the
|      time/energy domain as symmetry about 0 is assumed. If for whatever reason this is not
|      appropriate for the data in question, this function should not be used.
|
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          The time spacing to use when performing the inverse Fourier transform in units of fs.
|          Ideally this should be the same as the frame separation expected when applying this
|          function.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          A dictionary with the key 'SQw' corresponding to function which accepts arrays of time
|          and momentum (respectively) and returns a 2D array of values for the instrument
|          resolution.
|
|  validate_energy(self, dt)
|      Asserts that the user set frame separation dt leads to energy
|      separation that matches that of the experiment. If not, it
|      includes the time separation required in the error.
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float
|          Frame separation in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      None
|
|      Raises
|      ------
|      AssertionError
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Static methods inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  calculate_E(nE: int, dt: float)
|      Calculates an array of nE uniformly spaced energy values from the
|      time separation of the Trajectory frames, dt. The frequencies
|      are determined by the Fast Fourier Transform, as implemented by numpy,
|      for 2 * nE points in time which we then crop to only include nE
|      positive frequencies. As we are dealing with frequency rather than
|      angular frequency here, the relation to between energy is given by:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          E = h \nu
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      nE : int
|          The number of energy values to be calculated
|      dt : float
|          The step size between frames in fs
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      numpy.ndarray
|          An array of float specifying the energy in units of meV
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  E
|
|  SQw
|
|  SQw_err
|
|  dependent_variables
|      Get or set the dependent variables: this is
|      SQw, the dynamic structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The dependent variables
|
|  dependent_variables_structure
|      The order in which the 'SQw' dependent variable is indexed in terms of 'Q' and 'E'.
|      Explicitly: we have that self.SQw[Q_index, E_index] is the data point for
|      given indices of self.Q and self.E
|      It also means that:
|      np.shape(self.SQw)=(np.size(self.Q), np.size(self.E))
|
|      The purpose of this method is to ensure consistency
|      between different readers/methods which create SQw objects.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, list]
|          The shape of the SQw dependent variable
|
|  uniformity_requirements
|      Captures the current limitations on the energy 'E' and reciprocal
|      lattice points 'Q' within the dynamic structure factor Observables.
|      If using FFT, then 'E' must be uniform and start at zero, otherwise it
|      has no restrictions. 'Q' must be uniform but does not need to start at
|      zero.
|
|      Return
|      ------
|      Dict[str, Dict[str, bool]]
|          Dictionary of uniformity restrictions for 'E' and 'Q'.
|
|  w
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from AbstractSQw:
|
|  errors
|      Get or set the errors on the dependent variables, the dynamic
|      structure factor (in arb)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The errors on the dependent_variables
|
|  independent_variables
|      Get or set the independent variables: these are
|      the frequency Q (in Ang^-1) and energy E (inmeV)
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent variables
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  maximum_frames(self)
|      The maximum number of Trajectory frames that can be used to
|      calculate the dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      Otherwise, there is no limit and all frames will contribute to the
|      calculation.
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The maximum number of frames
|
|  minimum_frames(self, dt: float = None)
|      The minimum number of Trajectory frames needed to calculate the
|      dependent_variables depends on self.use_FFT.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == True, it is the number of energy steps + 1, in order to allow for
|      a reflection in time which only counts the end points once.
|
|      If self.use_FFT == False, there is not a hard minimum on number of frames. However, to
|      distinguish our smallest differences in energy :math:F(Q,t) needs to
|      cover at least a time period :math:T_{min} such that:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          T_{min} \sim \frac{h}{\Delta E_{min}}
|
|      Due to the aforementioned reflection in the time domain, to cover a
|      period of :math:T_{min} we only need :math:N frames:
|
|      .. math::
|
|          N = \frac{T_{min}}{2 \Delta t} + 1 = \frac{h}{2 \Delta t \Delta E_{min}} + 1
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      dt : float, optional
|          The time separation of frames in fs, default is None
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      int
|          The minimum number of frames
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from SQwMixins:
|
|  Q
|
|  __dict__
|      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
|
|  __weakref__
|      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Methods inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  __repr__(self)
|
|      Reads in experimental data from a file using a specified reader
|
|      Parameters
|      ----------
|      reader : str
|          The name of the required file reader
|      file_name : str
|          The name of the file
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Readonly properties inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  data
|      Get the independent, dependent and error data
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      dict
|          The independent, dependent and error data
|
|  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
|  Data descriptors inherited from MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.obs.Observable:
|
|  origin
|      Get or set the origin of the observable
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      str
|          The origin of the Observable, either 'experiment' or
|          'MD'
|
|  use_FFT
|      Get or set whether to use FFT when calculating from MD
|
|      Returns
|      -------
|      bool
|          Whether to use FFT

DATA
__all__ = ['CoherentDynamicStructureFactor', 'CoherentIntermediateScat...

FILE
/usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/MDMC/trajectory_analysis/observables/__init__.py



As is mentioned in the Examples section, each observable may have one or more aliases. So both DynamicStructureFactor or SQw can be used for calculating $$S(Q,\omega)$$.

Some of the details given below are specific to calculating the dynamic structure factor, however the general method can be followed for any observable.

Argon has comparable scattering lengths for both coherent and incoherent scattering, so the total scattering has clear contributions from each. For the purposes of this tutorial we will simply calculate $$S(Q,\omega)_{coh}$$ and compare it with experimental data; the exercise of calculating the incoherent and total scattering is left as an exercise for the reader.

:

sqw_coh = observables.SQwCoh()


The dynamic structure factor has two independent variables, the scattering wavevector, $$Q$$, and $$E$$ (or $$\hbar\omega$$) is the energy transfer.

The size of the simulation box defines the spacing (and therefore the lower bound) of $$Q$$ values; however any Q values can be specified for calculating $$S(Q,\omega)$$ and MDMC will simply calculate it for valid values.

:

# Using the arange function from NumPy - this creates an uniform array of floats with a
# start (0.42), stop (3.8) and step (0.3) specified below
Q = np.arange(0.42, 3.8, 0.3)
print('Q will be calculated for values of: {}'.format(Q))

Q will be calculated for values of: [0.42 0.72 1.02 1.32 1.62 1.92 2.22 2.52 2.82 3.12 3.42 3.72]


The total duration of the trajectory defines the smallest spacing of the $$E$$ values. If $$E$$ values are not specified, MDMC will simply calculate the $$E$$ values with this spacing. However for this setting there will only be two points in the trajectory contributing to each energy bin and the statistics will be poor (should take ~30s to execute):

:

# Set the Q values for the Q independent variable
sqw_coh.independent_variables = {'Q':Q}

# Calculate the coherent dynamic structure factor
sqw_coh.calculate_from_MD(trajectory)

# Use the plotting function defined above to plot the result
plot_surface(sqw_coh.E, sqw_coh.Q, sqw_coh.SQw)


Therefore it is strongly recommended that you specify the $$E$$ values for calculating the dynamic structure factor.

The allowed values of $$E$$ (in meV) are determined by trajectory times. To aid in calculating these, the calulate_E method can be used, which requires the time step of the trajectory (in fs) and the total number of E values to be calculated. The number of E values should be changed to improve the statistics, but somewhere in the range of 1/4 to 1/8 of the total number of trajectory configurations (i.e. the number of times for which a configuration was recorded) will be probably reasonable:

:

# This subtracts the time of the zeroeth step from the time of the first step
# It should be equal to the time_step * traj_step passed to Simulation
trajectory_timestep = trajectory.times - trajectory.times
print('Trajectory time step: {} fs'.format(trajectory_timestep))

n_configurations = len(trajectory.times)
print('Number of trajectory configurations: {}'.format(n_configurations))

Trajectory time step: 250.0 fs
Number of trajectory configurations: 481

:

E = sqw_coh.calculate_E((n_configurations - 1) / 6, trajectory_timestep)
print('Calculated E values are: \n{} meV'.format(E))

Calculated E values are:
[0.         0.10339169 0.20678338 0.31017508 0.41356677 0.51695846
0.62035015 0.72374185 0.82713354 0.93052523 1.03391692 1.13730862
1.24070031 1.344092   1.44748369 1.55087539 1.65426708 1.75765877
1.86105046 1.96444216 2.06783385 2.17122554 2.27461723 2.37800893
2.48140062 2.58479231 2.688184   2.79157569 2.89496739 2.99835908
3.10175077 3.20514246 3.30853416 3.41192585 3.51531754 3.61870923
3.72210093 3.82549262 3.92888431 4.032276   4.1356677  4.23905939
4.34245108 4.44584277 4.54923447 4.65262616 4.75601785 4.85940954
4.96280124 5.06619293 5.16958462 5.27297631 5.376368   5.4797597
5.58315139 5.68654308 5.78993477 5.89332647 5.99671816 6.10010985
6.20350154 6.30689324 6.41028493 6.51367662 6.61706831 6.72046001
6.8238517  6.92724339 7.03063508 7.13402678 7.23741847 7.34081016
7.44420185 7.54759355 7.65098524 7.75437693 7.85776862 7.96116031
8.06455201 8.1679437 ] meV


Of course if the $$E$$ resolution required is lower (i.e. step between the E values can be larger), the number of E values specified can be reduced:

:

print('A reduced E resolution: \n{} meV'.format(sqw_coh.calculate_E((n_configurations - 1) / 24, trajectory_timestep)))

A reduced E resolution:
[0.         0.41356677 0.82713354 1.24070031 1.65426708 2.06783385
2.48140062 2.89496739 3.30853416 3.72210093 4.1356677  4.54923447
4.96280124 5.376368   5.78993477 6.20350154 6.61706831 7.03063508
7.44420185 7.85776862] meV


Now we can use Q and E to set the indepedendent variables of sqw_coh:

:

sqw_coh.independent_variables = {'E':E,
'Q':Q}


Using this binning, recalculate the dynamic structure factor, which is smoother due to better statistics This calculation should take ~30s.:

:

sqw_coh.calculate_from_MD(trajectory)
plot_surface(sqw_coh.E, sqw_coh.Q, sqw_coh.SQw)


We can compare this with experimental data measured using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) data (specifically here the van Well et al. Phys. Rev. A 31 3391 (1985) data, which the authors corrected for instrument resolution) by reading the data into an SQwCoh object:

:

# Create a second SQwCoh object, this time called sqw_exp
sqw_exp = observables.SQwCoh()

# Read the data from the file ./data/Well_s_q_omega_Ar_data.xml using the xml_SQw reader


The independent and dependent variables are read into the same attributes (sqw_coh.E, sqw_exp.Q, and sqw_exp.SQw) as if they had been calculated from MD (as in sqw_coh above).

For many QENS datasets (if not most) the instrument resolution has not been removed, and to compare with MD simulation this requires the simulation output to be convolution with the instrument resolution. One way this can be done is using: the optional energy_resolution:

:

# energy_resolution is the FWHM of the instrumentation's resolution function expressed in ueV (micro eV).
# It is used to smooth the calculated S(Q,w) with a Gaussian window in order to match the values obtained experimentally.
sqw_coh.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, energy_resolution={'gaussian': 1.0e3})

plot_surface(sqw_coh.E, sqw_coh.Q, sqw_coh.SQw)


## Other observables

The same applies for the observables, such as the pair distribution function $$G(r)$$. To determine how to calculate another observables from an MD trajectory, please see the associated help documentation:

:

help(observables.PDF.calculate_from_MD)

Help on function calculate_from_MD in module MDMC.trajectory_analysis.observables.pdf:

calculate_from_MD(self, MD_input: Union[MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory, List[MDMC.trajectory_analysis.trajectory.Trajectory]], verbose=0, **settings)
Calculate the pair distribution function, :math:G(r) from a
Trajectory

The total pair distribution function (pdf.PDF) has the form:

.. math::

G(r) = \sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j(g_{ij}(r) - 1)

where :math:c_i is the number concentration of element :math:i,
:math:b_i is the (coherent) scattering length of element :math:i,
and the partial pair distribution, :math:g_{ij}, is:

.. math::

g_{ij}(r) = \frac{h_{ij}(r)}{4 \pi r^2 \rho_{j} \Delta{r}}

where :math:h_{ij} is the histogram of distances of :math:j element
atoms around atoms of element :math:i, with bins of size
:math:\Delta{r}, and :math:\rho_{j} is the number density of
atoms of element :math:j. As :math:g_{ij}(0) = 0, it is evident that
:math:G(0) = -\sum_{i,j}^{N_{elements}} c_ic_jb_ib_j.

Independent variables can either be set previously or defined within
settings.

A number of frames can be specified, from which the PDF and its
error are calculated. If the number of frames is too large relative to
the run length, the samples will be correlated, which will result in an
underestimate of the error.

Parameters
----------
MD_input : Trajectory or list of Trajectory
Either a list of MD Trajectorys or a single Trajectory object.
verbose: int
Verbose print settings. Not currently implemented for PDF.
**settings
n_frames : int
The number of frames from which the pdf and its error are
calculated. If this is not passed, 1% of the total number of
frames are used (rounded up to nearest int).
subset : list of tuples
The subset of element pairs from which the PDF is calculated.
This can be used to calculate the partial PDFs of a
multicomponent system. If this is not passed, all combinations
of elements are used i.e. the PDF is the total PDF.
b_coh : dict
Definitions of the coherent neutron scattering lengths for one
or more elements. This can be used to calculate the PDF of a
system where one or more elements has a coherent scattering
length different from the coherent scattering length in
MDMC.common.atom_properties (i.e. if it has been isotopically
substituted).
r_min : float
The minimum r (atomic separation) for which the PDF will be
calculated. If this, r_max, and r_step are passed then
these will create a range for the independent variable r,
which will overwrite any r which has previously been
defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
r_max : float
The maximum r (atomic separation) for which the PDF will be
calculated. If this, r_min, and r_step are passed then
these will create a range for the independent variable r,
which will overwrite any r which has previously been
defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
r_step : float
The step size of r (atomic separation) for which the PDF
will be calculated. If this, r_min, and r_max are passed
then these will create a range for the independent variable
r, which will overwrite any r which has previously been
defined. This cannot be passed if r is passed.
r : numpy.ndarray
The uniform r values for which the PDF will be calculated.
This cannot be passed if r_min, r_max, and r_step
are passed.
dimensions : array-like
A 3 element array-like (list, tuple) with the dimensions
of the Universe.

Examples
--------
To calculate the O-O partial PDF from a simulation of water, use the
subset keyword:

.. highlight:: python
.. code-block:: python

pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, subset=[(O, O)])

To calculate the sum of the H-O and O-O partial PDFs:

.. highlight:: python
.. code-block:: python

pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, subset=[(O, O), (H, O)])

To calculate the total PDF for sodium chloride with 37Cl:

.. highlight:: python
.. code-block:: python

pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, b_coh={'Cl':3.08})

To calculate the total PDF for r values of [1., 2., 3., 4., ]:

.. highlight:: python
.. code-block:: python

pdf.calculate_from_MD(trajectory, b_coh={'Cl':3.08})


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